Overview of our work that will be presented at the CHI ’19 conference in Glasgow, UK.
Effect of Orientation on Unistroke Touch Gestures
As touchscreens are the most successful input method of current mobile devices, touch gestures became a widely used input technique. While gestures provide users with advantages to express themselves, they also introduce challenges regarding accuracy and memorability. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a gesture’s orientation on how well the gesture can be performed. We conducted a study in which participants performed systematically rotated unistroke gestures. For straight lines as well as for compound lines, we found that users tend to align gestures with the primary axes. We show that the error can be described by a Clausen function with R2 = .93. Based on our findings, we suggest design implications and highlight the potential for recognizing flick gestures, visualizing gestures and improving recognition of compound gestures.
Online, VR, AR, Lab, and In-Situ: Comparison of Research Methods to Evaluate Smart Artifacts
Empirical studies are a cornerstone of HCI research. Technical progress constantly enables new study methods. Online surveys, for example, make it possible to collect feedback from remote users. Progress in augmented and virtual reality enables to collect feedback with early designs. In-situ studies enable researchers to gather feedback in natural environments. While these methods have unique advantages and disadvantages, it is unclear if and how using a specific method affects the results. Therefore, we conducted a study with 60 participants comparing five different methods (online, virtual reality, augmented reality, lab setup, and in-situ) to evaluate early prototypes of smart artifacts. We asked participants to assess four different smart artifacts using standardized questionnaires. We show that the method significantly affects the study result and discuss implications for HCI research. Finally, we highlight further directions to overcome the effect of the used methods.
Investigating the Effect of Orientation and Visual Style on Touchscreen Slider Performance
Sliders are one of the most fundamental components used in touchscreen user interfaces (UIs). When entering data using a slider, errors occur due e.g. to visual perception, resulting in inputs not matching what is intended by the user. However, it is unclear if the errors occur uniformly across the full range of the slider or if there are systematic offsets. We conducted a study to assess the errors occurring when entering values with horizontal and vertical sliders as well as two common visual styles. Our results reveal significant effects of slider orientation and style on the precision of the entered values. Furthermore, we identify systematic offsets that depend on the visual style and the target value. As the errors are partially systematic, they can be compensated to improve users’ precision. Our findings provide UI designers with data to optimize user experiences in the wide variety of application areas where slider based touchscreen input is used.
Understanding the Social Acceptability of Mobile Devices using the Stereotype Content Model
Understanding social perception is important for designing mobile devices that are socially acceptable. Previous work not only investigated the social acceptability of mobile devices and interaction techniques but also provided tools to measure social acceptance. However, we lack a robust model that explains the underlying factors that make devices socially acceptable. In this paper, we consider mobile devices as social objects and investigate if the stereotype content model (SCM) can be applied to those devices. Through a study that assesses combinations of mobile devices and group stereotypes, we show that mobile devices have a systematic effect on the stereotypes’ warmth and competence. Supported by a second study, which combined mobile devices without a specific stereotypical user, our result suggests that mobile devices are perceived stereotypically by themselves. Our combined results highlight mobile devices as social objects and the importance of considering stereotypes when assessing social acceptance of mobile devices.
Valentin Schwind, Niklas Deierlein, Romina Poguntke, Niels Henze
Using Presence Questionnaires in Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality (VR) is gaining increasing importance in science, education, and entertainment. A fundamental characteristic of VR is creating presence, the experience of ’being’ or ’acting’, when physically situated in another place. Measuring presence is vital for VR research and development. It is typically repeatedly assessed through questionnaires completed after leaving a VR scene. Requiring participants to leave and re-enter the VR costs time and can cause disorientation. In this paper, we investigate the effect of completing presence questionnaires directly in VR. Thirty-six participants experienced two immersion levels and filled three standardized presence questionnaires in the real world or VR.We found no effect on the questionnaires’ mean scores; however, we found that the variance of those measures significantly depends on the realism of the virtual scene and if the subjects had left the VR. The results indicate that, besides reducing a study’s duration and reducing disorientation, completing questionnaires in VR does not change the measured presence but can increase the consistency of the variance.
Valentin Schwind, Pascal Knierim, Nico Haas, Niels Henze